Ocean Freight or Air Freight – which is the right choice for you?

Catherine Taylor Communication & Content Manager

When it comes to transporting temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals, 托运人越来越多地考虑将海运作为空运的替代方式,因为海运被认为具有成本效益和环境友好性. However, the reality may surprise you.

Since the Covid-19 pandemic, 我们看到所有行业的企业都在调整自己的工作方式以保持盈利——制药行业也不例外. 托运人越来越多地询问其他运输选择, like sea or ocean shipping, 即使航空货运价格下降,也要减少货运成本对其底线的影响.

但是,海运能否被视为一种与空运同等条件的运输方式呢? Ocean freight is regarded by some as a less costly, more reliable, and more environmentally friendly choice than air freight. However, 在现实中,情况可能正好相反——海运是不可预测的, expensive, and dirty, 最近在2023年1月实施的监管变化证明了这一点. 以下是您需要了解的关于海运的信息,以便为您的温度敏感型药品做出正确的运输选择.

Ocean and air freight are facing the same challenges

Like air freight, ocean freight can be delayed due to a range of reasons, the same reasons in fact as air freight – bad weather conditions, strikes, traffic congestion at the port, labor strikes and customs delays. Flights usually go according to schedule and in case of delays, 货物可以改道或重新安排到较晚的航班,最常见的是同一天. 谈到海运,延误通常以天计算,而不是以小时计算. 最近的数据显示,虽然主要港口的拥堵正在缓慢减少, levels haven’t yet returned to pre-pandemic levels.

最近的数据显示,虽然主要港口的拥堵正在缓慢减少, levels haven’t yet returned to pre-pandemic levels

All aspects taken together; air freight is usually regarded as more reliable than ocean freight. 最好的选择是海洋还是空气取决于世界杯外围买球网的风险状况. For temperature-sensitive pharmaceuticals, 到目前为止,采用主动温控解决方案的空运运输是更安全的选择. 通过选择海运来增加新货物的数量,很难实现任何形式的质量创新或质量改进, specialized, 以及进入市场的敏感世界杯外围买球网,如生物制剂或生物仿制药. 对于不那么敏感的成熟世界杯外围买球网来说,这可能是一个选择, depending on the cost for the different alternatives. 总成本分析可以表明是否值得冒海运的风险.

The reality of the carbon footprint

When making a straight comparison between air and ocean freight, it is easy to say that air freight emits more carbon dioxide. However, in reality, the picture is much more complex.

制药商赛诺菲此前计算出,上下游运输构成6.公司温室气体排放总量的7%和赛诺菲自有车队的1%.4% - with similar stories from many other manufacturers. 由于目前的运输量只占制药价值链碳排放总量的一小部分, 很明显,最环保的选择是确保世界杯外围买球网的快速和安全交付. Likewise, 世界杯外围买球网是否在运输过程中损坏而无法使用, 碳排放量将成倍增加,因为这些世界杯外围买球网必须被丢弃,并制造和发送新的货物. For sensitive pharmaceuticals, 因此,通过主动温控解决方案的空运运输是最环保的选择,因为它是最安全的替代方案.

As many temperature sensitive products have a short shelf life, 海运成为了一个额外的挑战,因为由于可能需要数周的运输时间,这段时间可以大大缩短. 这意味着在决定最佳运输方式时,保质期应该始终是一个主要因素. Looking at the whole picture, 适用于保质期短的敏感药品和/或世界杯外围买球网, air freight in an active temperature-controlled solution could, in fact have the smallest carbon footprint.

Should products become damaged during transport and become unusable, 二氧化碳排放量将成倍增加,因为这些世界杯外围买球网必须被丢弃,并制造和发送新的货物

针对船舶效率和碳排放的新规定于1月1日生效, 2023. 这些规定强制要求新建和现有船舶减少碳排放,将成为国际航运绿色转型的下一个篇章.

But similar to greener air freight, these changes come at a cost. 船东和运营商将需要投资于更节能的措施和技术,以满足这些新要求. They may also face new restrictions on their operations, such as limits on speed or the use of older vessels.

A total cost analysis for better comparison between air and ocean

Usually, ocean freight is less costly than air freight. 然而,对于较小的货物,空运可能会更便宜. For a thorough comparison, 应对每个备选方案所涉及的所有成本进行总成本分析并进行比较. 计算每一种运输方式的成本有不同的方法——空运, ocean, and road. As space is limited in an aircraft, 货物将根据航空运输的特定公式定价. For road and ocean respectively, the formula looks different.

You must also consider the cost of capital. As mentioned before, 保质期短的世界杯外围买球网不适合远洋运输, especially as ocean freight is more prone to delays. 一种保质期为4个月的世界杯外围买球网在货船上被滞留了数周,这对药店来说是没有吸引力的. In addition, lengthy transports will delay sales, thereby binding up capital that could be put to other use. Thus, 海洋还是空气是更好的选择取决于许多因素-世界杯外围买球网的风险概况, shelf life, 在机场/海港的仓储和货物成本(在运输中捆绑的资本)等等.

正确的选择取决于许多因素——世界杯外围买球网的风险概况, shelf life, warehousing, and cost of goods among other things.

Making a choice

空运和海运之间的选择往往比人们想象的要复杂得多. 运输药品总是要在成本和质量之间取得平衡. For costs, a total cost analysis could give more insights. The most cost-efficient transport alternative, and the most environmentally friendly, is to ensure that products are delivered intact and on schedule.